There isn't the time or space to provide an exhaustive study - whole books have been written about Oracle performance tuning. Instead we'll just consider a few of the most important tactics and there'll be suggestions for further reading, so you can expand your knowledge of this important subject.
One point that needs to be made clear is that performance tuning is not an exact science - you can't always predict that a certain tactic or technique will improve performance. Every change has to be tested, because whilst it may improve performance in one area, it may also degrade performance in another area. Adding an index is a classic example of this - it may improve query performance but the performance of inserts and deletes become slower because the index entries also have to be updated.
The other thing to remember about performance tuning is that you need to decide on your goals before you start - do you need a 10% decrease in response time for queries ? Is adding new records or updating existing records 20% slower than targets ?
You also need to be aware that improving response time is not the only aim that you might have - you might want to reduce memory usage instead - which might mean having to redesign or rewrite some stored procedures. All these issues need to be considered before you start looking at performance.
Let's start with a list of the topics that we'll cover:
Part 1 discusses the
use of full-table scans
part 2 discusses how and when to use indexes.
Part 3 tells you how you can optimise joins.
Part 4 discusses how to use views to get a high performance database.
Part 5 tells you why your database should NOT be normalised.
In Part 6 you can learn how to use stored procedures to sky-rocket Oracle performance.
Finally, part 7 shows you how to use sub queries to boost Oracle performance
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